Anal dysplasia is a pre-cancerous condition in which lesions have formed in or near the anal canal. These lesions are skin cells that have changed into abnormal cells. These are often caused by human papillomavirus HPV , which is also the cause of anal warts. Anal dysplasia can be treated.
Anal cancer is a cancer which arises from the anus , the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract. Prevention includes avoiding risk factors and HPV vaccination. Symptoms of anal cancer can include pain or pressure in the anus or rectum, a change in bowel habits, a lump near the anus, rectal bleeding, itching or discharge. Bleeding may be severe. Most anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas epidermoid carcinomas , that arises near the squamocolumnar junction. It may be keratinizing basaloid or non-keratinizing cloacogenic. Other types of anal cancer are adenocarcinoma , lymphoma , sarcoma or melanoma.
An ultrasound is an examination using high-frequency sound waves to create images of tissue layers beneath the surface. Ultrasound examination involves no radiation and is a very safe procedure. It provides additional information about rectal polyps, rectal cancer, perianal infection and sphincter muscle injuries.
This year-old man presented with a very painful infection. There was a large abscess which was easily palpable with surrounding cellulitis. It clearly needed incision so he was admitted for this to be done under general anaesthetic. There was no obvious underlying cause, such as inflammatory bowel disease or diabetes.